• 119 TWh Energy Demand
  • 36.1 GW Installed Capacity
  • 11 % Renewable Share


The New England power market serves six states in the US Northeast and is the smallest competitive power market in the US. Power demand is primarily supplied by natural gas and nuclear, with hydro and biomass supplying the majority of renewable generation.

  • Total Capacity
  • Total Generation
ISO New England, 2019, US Energy Information Agency, 2019

36 GW


Market Design

How is the market structured?

ISO-NE is structured as a competitive wholesale market with energy transacted on a day-ahead and real-time (5 minute) basis. Capacity is sold in annual auctions, 3 years ahead of the commitment period. ISO-NE also operates several markets for ancillary services.

ISO-NE covers six states (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Maine). ISO-NE is interconnected with New York to the west and south, Quebec to the north, and New Brunswick to the east.

The main pricing hub in ISO-NE is Massachusetts Hub, located west of Boston, the major load center in the region. Nodal pricing exists throughout ISO-NE with pricing varying with local supply/demand conditions as well as transmission considerations more generally. Nodal pricing is aggregated to calculate energy prices for 8 separate energy zones, as well as the energy price at interconnection points with neighboring regions.

Buyers and sellers can hedge their exposure in the forward market within a ~5 year window via over the counter trading platforms.

Many consumers receive power from their local utility (the utility covering the geographic area in which the load is located). Consumers can also opt to buy power directly from a generator, or through a retailer (in states where competitive retail markets exist) though the utility will continue to charge certain fees (i.e. transmission/distribution/other system fees).

Retail choice is available in all ISO-NE states except Vermont.

In general, a bill can be broken into three components: generation, transmission and distribution. Generation costs are broadly correlated with wholesale energy prices, transmission costs are socialized across all consumers, and distribution costs vary based on the local cost of each utility. Other system and social charges (such as to support energy efficiency programs) are generally socialized across consumers and are also reflected on the bill from the local utility.

In the US, renewable generation is certified and tracked using RECs (Renewable Energy Certificates). One REC is issued for every MWh of eligible renewable energy that is delivered to the electric grid. A REC contains unique identifying details of the energy generated, including the renewable fuel type, project name and location, the vintage of the project and the generation, and serial number.

Within ISO-NE, the New England Power Pool Generation Information System (NEPOOL GIS) is used to track generation ownership and attributes, including RECs.

How are RECs (Renewable Energy Certificates) procured? Market transactions or long-term contracts.

Are renewable Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) available? Yes

Are Green Tariffs available? No

System Operator:

  • ISO-NE

Key Government Departments:

  • State energy departments which oversee policy related to power markets within their state.
  • Public Service/Utility Commissions which regulate and oversee the electricity industry in their state.


  • The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the federal agency that regulates the transmission and wholesale sales of electricity in interstate commerce.
  • The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) is a not-for-profit international regulatory authority whose mission is to assure the reliability and security of the bulk power system in North America

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